This design example shows the implementation of Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) using Altera® MAX® II, MAX V and MAX 10 devices. This design also utilizes the internal user
flash memory oscillator provided within the supported devices, which
eliminates the need for a dedicated external clock.
The supported Altera devies are an excellent
choice for implementing power control using pulse width modulation.
Their low power, quick power-on, and unique internal oscillator are
essential to pulse width control systems, making them ideal
programmable logic devices.
In PWM, the time period of the square wave is kept constant and the time
for which the signal remains high is varied or modulated. The duty cycle
and average DC value of the signal can be varied. PWM provides a
powerful method for controlling analog circuits with the help of an
output from a digital system. A few applications of PWM technique
Telecommunication—Data corresponding to particular pulse widths
is encoded at one end and decoded at the other end.
Voltage regulation—The output voltage in a voltage regulator
system can be controlled to a desired level by varying the duty cycle.
Power delivery—You can vary the average power delivered, which
is a function of the modulated duty cycle.
Audio Effects and Amplification—Used in sound synthesis.
You can visually observe PWM with intensity variation in LEDs, which
are known for their fast switching speeds. Intensity variation in the LED
is an outcome of the variation in average DC voltage and the current
through the LED due to PWM.
PWM Using MAX II Devices
The detailed description of the implementation is based on the MAX II devices. This application can also be implemented in
MAX V and MAX 10 devices.
The up and down
input signals are used to vary the duty cycle of the output signal. The first
module is used to generate two clocks of different frequencies with the
available internal user flash memory oscillator in MAX II devices. The
4-bit output signal from the DUTY_CYCLE module has positive or
negative incrementation, depending on whether up or down is asserted.
The second 4-bit output signal COUNT (reference counter) is incremented
continuously at the higher clock frequency generated in the first module.
This signal is compared to DUTY_CYCLE at the same frequency in the
second module. The result of the comparison, which is a single bit, is
assigned to the final output signal PWM.
Figure 1. Implementation of Pulse Width Modulation Using a MAX II Device
The inputs to the PWM are comprised of up and down signals used to
vary the duty cycle of the output signal. The device uses two basic
modules to realize the working of the PWM. All
input and output signals are of a single bit.
The 4-bit variable signal DUTY_CYCLE allows 16 different variations in
the duty cycle of the output signal. In this design implementation, input
up has a higher priority over down. If both are high at the same time, the
output signal sees an increase in its duty cycle.
You can implement this design example with an EPM240, or any other
MAX II devices, and observe results by controlling the intensity of
mono-color (red) LEDs and varying color shades of bi-color (red/green)
LEDs on the MDN-B2 demo board. Implement this design with
the design example source code and allocate the appropriate control and
output lines to the GPIO lines of the MAX II device that are connected to
LEDs. The red LEDs are driven by the PWM output, which causes their
intensities to vary. The bi-color LEDs are driven by two mutually
complementary signals: PWM and PWM_INV. The frequency of operation
causes the phenomenon of persistence of human vision. This creates a
small spectrum of colors involving the two individual colors of the
bi-color LEDs, while their individual intensities are varied corresponding
to the PWM signal. You can operate two push-button switches on the demo
board to gradually create the small spectrum of colors. This also
illustrates the change in the duty cycle of the output signal because of the
varied intensity of the single-color LED.
Figure 2. PWM Demo Arrangement on MDN-B2 Demo Board
Table 1. EPM240G Pin Assignment. Assign unused pins As input tri-stated in the Device and Pin
Options dialog box in the Quartus II software prior to compilation.
PWM Design Demonstration on MDN-B2 Demo Board
To demonstrate the design example on the MDN-B2 demo board, follow these steps:
Turn on the power to the demo board (using slide switch SW1).
Download the design to the MAX II device through the JTAG header
JP5 on the demo board and a conventional programming cable
(ByteBlaster™ II or USB-Blaster™).
Keep SW4 on the demo board
pressed before and during the start of the programming process.
Once complete, turn off the power and remove the JTAG connector.
Switch on the power to the demo board (using the slide switch SW1)
and observe intensity variations in red LEDs when the up and down
(SW9/SW8) push buttons on the MDN-B2 demo board are pushed.
Bi-color LED D7 indicates different combinations of red and green
colors with varying PWM output.
Design example adapted for Altera MAX 10 FPGAs by:
Orchid Technologies Engineering and Consulting, Inc.